Adjuvant medication of the hottest probiotics in t

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Probiotics: adjuvant drugs in the future

probiotics refers to "living microbial preparations that are beneficial to the health of the host (human or animal) when taken in an appropriate dose", which is jointly defined by the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (who). At present, hundreds of probiotics containing foods and food additives are circulating in the market all over the world. They are advertised as various functions beneficial to human body, such as improving constipation, alleviating fatigue and regulating blood lipids. Many traditional foods, such as fermented tea and yogurt, are also widely believed to have the effect of improving indigestion and even migraine

the debate on the efficacy of probiotics is about to come, but how do these beneficial microorganisms work? Are probiotic products really beneficial to human and animal health? In the myth of probiotics, which are real and which are fictitious? On June 14th, 2006, based on the discussion results of an academic seminar held in November, 2005, the American Society of Microbiology released a report on the role of probiotics in the medical field in the future

we are surrounded by microorganisms

since birth, even in the process of being delivered, many bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms have begun to reproduce in the human body and coexist with people all year round. In this world full of microorganisms, people have already adapted to the existence of these microorganisms in the environment and in the body. It is neither possible nor desirable to separate people from microorganisms. Microbial communities are all over our skin, intestines and other cavities. Eradicating these symbiotic microorganisms will break the balance of the body and may lead to chronic diarrhea, vitamin deficiency, inappropriate immune tolerance to food or opportunistic infection

in human intestines, many symbiotic strains form a huge and complex system. Although the system varies greatly from individual to individual, they are usually composed of hundreds of different strains, most of which are obligate anaerobes (>99%). Anaerobic bacteria can proliferate on a large scale in an anoxic environment, but obligate anaerobic bacteria cannot proliferate arbitrarily until the oxygen in the infant's intestine is consumed by facultative anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, the activity of obligate anaerobic bacteria is restricted by facultative anaerobic bacteria to some extent

the development of immune system cannot be separated from microorganisms

any animal resists the invasion of pathogenic bacteria through the two immune systems of innate and acquired immunity. The role of innate immune system is non-specific, while acquired immunity is to produce specific antibodies to specific pathogens to play a specific immune role

many clinical and basic studies have clearly confirmed that symbiotic microbial communities play a mainstay role in the development of human immune system. The immune system activity of mucous membrane, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and urogenital tract of the experimental animals can be activated and begin to play a defensive function after the sterile animals are stimulated with symbiotic microbial strains

in addition, the presence of microbial communities can make macrophages more active and promote the emergence of pre-inflammatory state, which is conducive to the production of pre-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and chemokine MCP-1. Long term administration of probiotics can quickly activate the innate immune system when the host needs defense, and it can also be quickly inactivated when the threat is no longer present

the way probiotics regulate the immune system

the function of the innate immune system is to identify and remove microorganisms non specifically, or wrap them up when they cannot be removed. Intestinal epithelial cells can secrete a large number of immunoglobulins and cytokines under the stimulation of microorganisms, which is an important form for the intestinal innate immune system to exercise its defense function. The therapeutic goal of probiotics is to stimulate this function of the intestinal immune system, so that the body can achieve immune homeostasis, and at any time, it will not cause excessive inflammatory reaction while reacting to symbiotic microorganisms and pathogenic microorganisms with similar antigenic determinants

probiotics can regulate the function of immune system through toll like receptor (TLR). TLR is a transmembrane protein, which is an important information transmitter in the defense function of the innate immune system. It can activate the immune system of vertebrates after binding with specific substances. Probiotics can interfere with other bacteria that interact with them and TLR on host intestinal epidermal cells, and then regulate the level of some antibodies, which is also one of the benefits of symbiotic microorganisms to the host

some cells in the innate immune system can give instructions to the acquired immune system. Therefore, probiotics can obtain the response of the immune system to other antigens in the environment through the regulation of the innate immune system. Macrophages and dendritic cells in the innate immune system can interact with microorganisms in the body, process and present antigens to helper T cells, and the latter determines what kind of immune response to the antigen. Therefore, in theory, probiotics can indirectly regulate the function of the immune system by regulating the activity of antigen-presenting cells

enhance the body's defense function through a variety of mechanisms

probiotics can not only prevent diseases by strengthening the immune system, but also interact with bacteria on the surface and in the body through a variety of ways, which may be beneficial or harmful to the host

probiotics can directly interact with pathogenic microorganisms, making them difficult to cause disease. The most typical example of this method is the treatment of diarrhea. Probiotics can strengthen the natural biological barrier in the intestine, so that the pathogen causing diarrhea can not enter

another form of microbial interaction caused by probiotics is "competitive exclusion". Microbial communities have the ability to restrict the cloning of other bacteria. These cloned strains can form a biological barrier to prevent pathogenic bacteria from forming clones at the growth sites of symbiotic bacteria. This competitive inhibition is probably caused by the same metabolic substrate, physical environment and bacteriocin necessary for the growth of similar strains

most pathogenic microorganisms belong to aerobic bacteria or facultative anaerobic bacteria. When the intestinal micro ecosystem is out of order, and the local concentration of oxygen molecules increases, it is conducive to the growth and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms. At this time, taking oxygen consuming probiotics to patients can reduce the local concentration of oxygen molecules, inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and restore the intestinal microecological balance, so as to achieve the purpose of disease prevention and treatment

in addition, the metabolites of probiotics acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, bacteriocin and other active substances together constitute a chemical barrier with defense function to prevent the reproduction of foreign strains

why should probiotics be supplemented

probiotic therapy is applicable to both sick and healthy people. Theoretically, changing the symbiotic flora of the human body can change the body's defense ability, so probiotics can treat some specific diseases, but why should healthy people also take probiotics? Although there is no conclusive evidence that probiotics are beneficial to healthy people, it is now clear that the immune function of the human body needs microbial stimulation to fully play its role. Therefore, healthy people should also be exposed to a variety of bacteria as soon as possible to stimulate the development and maturation of the immune system, but it is not clear what specific strains are beneficial to the human body

what diseases can probiotics treat?

theoretically, probiotics can prevent and treat a variety of infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. Can probiotics become drugs in the future? Nowadays, advanced research methods enable researchers to explore the structure of the human body, the function of the immune system and the occurrence of diseases. With the popularity of probiotic therapy, more and more researchers have turned their attention to this therapy. So far, the use of probiotics in human body is still limited to the prevention or supportive treatment of diseases, rather than radical treatment. Here are some diseases that have been proved to be effective by population research

the most conclusive example of probiotics' effectiveness in the treatment of diarrhea is the use of probiotics in the treatment of rotavirus infected diarrhea. A variety of probiotics can shorten the duration of acute watery diarrhea in children with rotavirus infection. Many other experiments have confirmed that probiotics are also effective against diarrhea caused by other pathogens

crypt inflammation crypt inflammation is a recurrent inflammation of ileal crypt, which is usually formed after colectomy for ulcerative colitis, but rarely occurs in patients who remove the colon due to tumor or trauma. Probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of ulcerative colitis, so it is also effective in the treatment of crypt inflammation

irritable bowel syndrome some probiotics with specific formulas can treat irritable bowel syndrome, and often lead to changes in the level of host cytokines during the treatment process, which indicates that some probiotics have anti-inflammatory activity

bladder cancer treated with Lactobacillus casei can reduce the recurrence rate of bladder cancer

urogenital tract infection some Lactobacillus strains can fight urogenital tract infections such as urethritis and bacterial vaginitis

treatment with S. boulardii can shorten the duration of B. difficile infection

oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri is beneficial to patients with specific eczema

in addition, many probiotic formulas are also used in animal husbandry. For example, the European Union has banned the use of antibiotics for livestock, which makes the use rate of probiotics in European farms higher than that in other parts of the world

in the future, in addition to the above fields, the application fields of probiotics may also include: implementing biotherapy for special infections and flora disorders, and excluding harmful biological communities (such as Helicobacter pylori); Adjust the immune status of immune deficiency patients; Change the nutritional status and material metabolism function of the host

many probiotic preparations are live bacteria preparations, and it is potentially dangerous to take such preparations for patients. For example, the central government, the SAR government and Hong Kong society have made their best efforts over the years, which may lead to infection. Then it is feasible to use the isolated microbial active ingredients or their metabolic end products to replace the live bacterial preparations, "Changsha Xiaolin, director of Nantong Johnson & Johnson, told us? There is no final conclusion on this issue. In addition to the microorganisms themselves, the non digestible components that can selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms, namely prebiotics, can enhance the role of probiotics by promoting the growth of probiotics in the body. The preparation that mixes probiotics and prebiotics is called multi country research on graphene materials & nbsp; Strive to seize the industrial highland synbiotics, which theoretically can maximize the efficacy of probiotics

the research on probiotics needs to be strengthened

theoretically, a variety of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa that participate in the formation of human symbiotic biological communities can be used as probiotics. Selecting and testing probiotics for treatment is a long and arduous work. Researchers must first consider the selection of strains to be tested, and then must choose in vivo and in vitro testing programs. The candidate strains must have good resistance to acids and bile to ensure that they can reach the final settlement position

the formula of probiotics should have two basic conditions: ① safety, which is the most important. The strains used should not be pathogenic strains, especially those with low immune function

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